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Superior Ingredients

In order to bring you the highest quality ingredients in the Focus Essentials dietary supplement, we partnered with a US based manufacturing facility that is world renowned for it's commitment to excellence.  

Here are just some of the benefits from the ingredients we use:

Vitamin A (as Natural Beta-Carotene):

Beta-carotene is an abundant yellow/orange pigment that gives many plants their color including fruits and vegetables. The name “carotene” was originally derived from the Latin word “carota” which translates to carrot. Beta-carotene is the main dietary source of Vitamin A. When foods containing beta-carotene are consumed, it is readily converted into Vitamin A to be used by the body to achieve optimal levels essential for normal development, a strong immune system, healthy skin, and good vision.

Beta-carotene is considered the safest and most available form of Vitamin A. In the body, Vitamin A has many functions. Its primary role is to support cellular growth, healing, and to act as a potent antioxidant to neutralize damaging molecules known as free radicals. Vitamin A has also been shown to aid in the prevention of multiple diseases and for the treatment of many ailments. Vitamin A works best when zinc and protein intake are adequate.


Vitamin C (from Acerola Cherry Extract)

Acerola Cherry Extract Vitamin C is different than the Vitamin C from ascorbic acid which is what most Vitamin C supplements contain. Acerola Cherry contains over 150 phytonutrients including beneficial bioflavonoids that traditional Vitamin C sources lack. Acerola Cherries are extremely rich in Vitamin C and just one Acerola Cherry contains double the amount of Vitamin C than an entire orange.

Vitamin C is a very well-known antioxidant that helps to prevent free radical damage and protect against some illnesses involving oxidative stress. Published studies have reported a link between oxidative stress and neuropsychological disorders and have concluded that a diet rich in vitamin C may be an effective addition to traditional psychological treatment for anxiety[1]. Vitamin C also helps to build collagen, protect mucus membranes, support immune system function to fend off infections, and viruses.


Vitamin D (as Cholecalciferol)

Cholecalciferol, also known as Vitamin D3, is a potent form of Vitamin D used to maintain adequate levels of Vitamin D in the body and to correct Vitamin D insufficiencies and deficiencies.

Vitamin D3 is essential for the proper absorption of calcium and phosphorus minerals when consumed in the diet. Low levels of Vitamin D can lead to inadequate calcium and phosphorus absorption resulting in weakened bones and dental issues. A Vitamin D deficiency can cause Ricket’s, a disease in children characterized by delayed growth, bone deformities (bowed legs), and muscle weakness. In adults, Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia or softening of bones which can cause bone pain and increase fracture risk. 


Vitamin E (as Mixed Tocopherols)

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that is comprised of compounds known as tocopherols and tocotrienols. The most readily available form of vitamin E is alpha-tochopherol. Vitamin E regulates enzymatic reactions, supports energy production in skeletal and cardiac muscles, aids the immune system, inhibits thrombocyte coagulation, and is important for neurological function.

A chemical reaction known as oxidation, forms free radicals which can cause damage to cells. Free radicals are found in the environment: ultraviolet light, cigarette smoke, and air pollution. Antioxidants, such as vitamin E, protect cells from damage and help hinder the production of these free-radicals.

Research has found that the anti-inflammatory properties of tocotrienols may protect against Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, it is suggested that decline in functional status and memory loss in moderately severe cases may be reduced with vitamin E supplementation. This in turn may allow for further independence and delayed need for a caregiver. It is also reported that the risk of developing dementia may be lowered by taking vitamin E and vitamin C[2].

Free radicals are formed during endurance exercise and it is suggested that vitamin E supplementation may aid in the protection against exercise-induced muscle injury[3]. It is also suggested that vitamin E may reduce fatigue and improve physical endurance.


Thiamine (as Thiamine Mononitrate)

Thiamine is an essential water-soluble B vitamin (B1) that plays a vital role in the support of neuronal connections, mental function, the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino-acids, and other metabolic activities at the cellular level. Since it is soluble in water, the body does not store a significant amount, therefore, deficiency can occur in as little as two weeks of inadequate intake. Nervous system disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, can manifest in the setting of thiamine deficiency.[4]

Studies have been conducted regarding the relationship between nutrient-poor diets and thiamine deficiency. It has been found that adolescents deficient in thiamine experienced weight loss, irritability, loss of appetite, and increased aggression.[5]


Riboflavin is a water soluble B vitamin that is involved in many metabolic processes including: normal cell growth and function, energy production, co-enzyme production, and cellular respiration.  

Riboflavin deficiency, or ariboflavinosis, is characterized by throat swelling, anemia, swollen tongue, dermatitis, weakness, and skin cracking.

Deficiency of riboflavin was associated with forgetfulness, inability to concentrate and mild confusion.[6]


Niacin (as Inositol Hexanicotinate, Niacinamide)

Niacin is a water-soluble B vitamin (B3) that is vital for several enzymatic reactions. There is evidence to support that niacin has neuroprotective properties and supplementation may be beneficial in certain neurological disorders. Deficiency can lead to pellagra, dementia, diarrhea, insomnia, anxiety, and encephalopathy.[7]

A double-blind trial analyzed the use of ascorbic acid and niacin vs. a placebo in children who suffered from ADHD. There were thirty-three children involved in this study, all experiencing distressing behaviors. Thirty-two of the thirty-three subjects responded positively, however, thirty days following niacin supplementation, all subjects began experiencing similar behaviors that were displayed prior to study[8].


Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCl)

Neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and dopamine, affect emotional response and mood. The presence of pyridoxine is imperative to the development of these neurotransmitters.

Readily apparent vitamin B6 deficiency is rare, however, can present as stomatitis, cheilosis, glossitis, depression, confusion, and irritability[9].

Autistic behavior and the provision of vitamin B6 and magnesium supplementation was analyzed in a double-blind trial. The study included 52 children with autism and 11 children without. Autistic behavior was reduced when provided both magnesium and pyridoxine.[10]



A wide variety of foods naturally contain folate, including: dark green leafy vegetables, fruits, beans, and nuts. Foods with the highest concentration include: Brussels sprouts, broccoli, liver, asparagus, spinach, and avocado. Grain products are typically fortified with folic acid.

Deficiency in folate can occur from a nutrient-poor diet, genetic disorders, alcohol consumption, and medications. There is a wide array of symptoms that can manifest from folate deficiency, including: depression, confusion, fetal neural tube defects, anemia, fatigue, poor growth, and diarrhea[11].


Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin)

Vitamin B12 is essential for the integrity and function of the nervous system and nerve tissue. Symptoms of B12 deficiency include: seizures, hypotonia, microcephaly, developmental delay, fatigue, tingling, and other physiological and nerve symptoms[12].

Methylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin are both forms of vitamin B12, however, they are differentiated by one molecule: a methyl group in methylcobolamin and a cyanide group in cyanocobolamin. Cyanocobolamin is not found naturally, but rather is a chemically synthesized. Once cyanocobolamin is ingested, the body quickly converts it to methylcobolamin, as the methyl compound is readily used in the body.

When compared to cyanocobolamin, research has found that the use of methylcobolamin will provide the body with vitamin B12 for longer periods of time and at higher concentrations. Despite this evidence, cyanocobolamin is more commonly found in multivitamins and B12 supplements. This could be due to the fact that synthesizing cyanocobolamin is cheaper than making or obtaining methylcobolamin.

Case study: a 22 year old female with bipolar type 1 developed characteristics of pseudodementia. She was initially treated with antidepressants, however, presented with recurrence of cognitive impairment. She was found to have macrocytic anemia and was placed on a vitamin B12 and folate regimen. It was noted that her symptoms had drastically resolved after vitamin supplementation[13].



Also known as Vitamin B7, is a water soluble vitamin used by the body to help convert food into energy.

A study investigated the health effects of a biotin deficient diet on four normal subjects for ten weeks and found that the deficiency group developed lethargy, anorexia, depression, and fatigue. When biotin levels were restored, these symptoms resolved[14].


Pantothenic Acid (as Calcium-D-Pantothenate)

Also known as Vitamin B-5, Calcium-D-Pantothenate is the most biologically active and stable form of Vitamin B-5 produced synthetically from pantothenic acid.

Vitamin B-5 is used by the body to support many nervous system functions.

It is also known as the “anti-stress” vitamin because of the important role it plays in maintaining the proper function of the adrenal glands. Hallmark symptoms of deficiency include: insomnia, depression, irritability, and fatigue. Adequate intake of Vitamin B-5 is necessary to support overall health and prevent illness[15].

A study evaluated the effects of a diet lacking pantothenic acid on male volunteers and found that they became irritable and argumentative. Other observed adverse effects included: dizziness, extreme fatigue, sleepiness, stomach upset, hypotension, and rapid heart rate.


Choline (as Choline Bitartate, CDP [Cytidine diphosphate] Choline Sodium)

Choline is an essential nutrient that is known for its cognitive improving properties. The salt form of choline is known as choline bitartate. The reported effects of choline bitartate supplements include: improved mental stimulation, cognition, and memory.

Several animal studies have been conducted regarding the importance of choline for brain development.[16] All studies that were reviewed, concluded that choline is imperative for the development and function of the brain[17]; important for cognitive performance, especially in the elderly[18]; and is required for adequate development of memory in infants and children.

Another function of choline is to aid in the production and release of acetylcholine, known as the “learning transmitter”[19]. This neurotransmitter is vital for learning and memory, stimulates your brain, increases your level of alertness, and provides more “mental energy”. Your brain can also increase production of acetylcholine if acetylcholine function is interfered by other stimulants[20].


Calcium (as Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Amino Acid Chelate)

Calcium is the most plentiful mineral in the body that has a key role in the proper function of the central nervous system.

Calcium carbonate is found naturally (limestone) and is used as a calcium supplement. It is provided to hemodialysis patients to act as a phosphate binder.

Calcium amino acid chelate is a form of calcium that is guaranteed neutral, pure, stable, and is noted to be as organic as the mineral found in plants. This form of calcium is produced with a specialized technology by binding one calcium molecule to two amino acid molecules. It can easily be absorbed as the molecular weight is such that it is able to pass through the intestinal wall.

It is suggested that calcium amino acid chelate reduces fatigue, supports pH regulation, bone/tooth formation, aids in vitamin and mineral metabolism, and promotes proper muscle and nerve function.

In a study reviewed, calcium level was compared in children with ADHD vs controls (normal children). Calcium levels were obtained via urine, plasma, erythrocytes, and hair. Children with ADHD were found to have a significant calcium deficiency and noted that supplementation was required.[21]

Case report: Four autistic children, with noted hypocalciuria, experienced self-induced injury to their eyes. After calcium supplementation was provided, three of the four children quit poking their eyes.[22]


Iron (as Iron Amino Acid Chelate)

Iron is an essential micronutrient responsible for carrying oxygen around the body as an element of hemoglobin.

Contrary to ferrous sulfate which can be toxic, iron amino acid chelates are safer and more bioavailable reducing potential side effects and enhancing absorption.

Iron deficiency can cause symptoms including: extreme fatigue, anemia, frequent infections, pale skin, swollen tongue, pica, hair loss, headache, heart palpitations, brittle or spoon-shaped fingernails (koilonychia), and restless leg syndrome.

A Lancet article published in 1996 by Bruner et al. reported that iron supplementation improved verbal learning and memory in non-anaemic iron-deficient adolescent girls.


Phosphorus (as Phosphorus Amino Acid Chelate)
Phosphorus works hand-in-hand with calcium to build strong bones. The right amount of each is necessary for sufficient bone health.

Phosphorus plays an integral role in cell membrane integrity, nucleic acid structure, energy production, cellular repair, protein synthesis, digestion, and hormonal balance.

A phosphorus deficiency, also known as hypophosphatemia, can cause fatigue, soft bones, joint pain, and muscle weakness.

A mineral with an amino acid chelate (bonding of ions) improves absorption and availability of the mineral. 

Iodine (from Kelp)

Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. A deficiency can result in mental disability and goiter (hypothyroidism).

Kelp is an excellent source of iodine and is used frequently to replenish iodine stores to reduce severity of hypothyroidism and intellectual disability[23].

Magnesium (as Magnesium Amino Acid Chelate)

Magnesium is an abundant mineral responsible for acting as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Magnesium saturates heart and brain tissue more so than other organ tissues. Magnesium plays a central role in bone health, calcium absorption, glucose metabolism, migraine prevention, heart health, energy production, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction.

Magnesium deficiency is characterized by tics, muscle cramping, seizures, anxiety, mental disturbances, infertility, insomnia, sensitivity to noise, and irritability[24].

In an observational study, parents of autistic children provided approximately 4000 completed questionnaires providing a rating on a variety of treatments their autistic children had received. High dose magnesium and B6 received the highest ratings[25].

In a separate observational study, levels of magnesium were tested in the serum, hair, and red blood cells of 116 children with ADHD. The researchers found that a magnesium deficiency was present in 95% of the ADHD children. The researchers also reported a correlation between distractibility and level of magnesium deficiency[26].


Zinc (as Zinc Amino Acid Chelate)
Zinc is an important mineral necessary to support the immune systems regular functions. It also helps facilitate protein and DNA synthesis, fuel the activity of hundreds of enzymes, cell growth, carbohydrate metabolism, and wound healing.

Zinc deficiency can result in alopecia, skin sores, diarrhea, reduced appetite, decreased wound healing ability, emotional disorders and irritability[27].

Selenium (as Selenium Amino Acid Chelate)

Selenium is an essential mineral stored primarily in skeletal muscle. This mineral aids in the production of antioxidant enzymes to prevent cell damage by neutralizing free radicals. Some research has concluded that selenium may help prevent certain cancers and protect the body from the toxic effects of heavy metals.

A Lancet article published in 2000 by Rayman et al. noted that selenium deficiencies have been linked to adverse mood states[28].

A Biological Psychiatry article published in 1996 by Hawkes et al. also reported depressed moods in study subjects with low levels of selenium[29].

Benton et al. reported in a 1991 Biological Psychiatry article that subjects who took 100 mcg of selenium had decreased anxiety and better moods as opposed to the low-selenium group which reported higher levels of anxiety, depression, and tiredness[30].


Copper (as Copper Amino Acid Chelate)

Copper is an essential mineral that enables the formation of red blood cells which carry oxygen to the rest of the body. Copper also aids in iron absorption and is integral in maintaining healthy bones, nerves, the immune system, and blood vessels.

Copper deficiency is relatively uncommon but can cause fatigue, osteoporosis, anemia, arthritis, and poor immune system function.


Manganese (as Manganese Amino Acid Chelate)

An essential mineral that is found in several foods including: seeds, whole grains, nuts, legumes, and leafy greens. It aids in the production of bone building enzymes, and functions as a co-enzyme in numerous metabolic pathways in the body. Manganese also supports normal development, nervous system integrity, and the formation of blood clotting factors.

Studies have shown that manganese can protect brain cells from similar damage observed in stroke and Alzheimer’s disease.[31]

Chromium (as Chromium Nicotinate Glycinate Chelate)

Chromium is an essential mineral that plays an important role in the insulin signaling pathway which helps to balance glucose metabolism to provide a sustained level of energy.

Symptoms of chromium deficiency include: fatigue, trouble concentrating, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension.

Studies have also shown chromium to act as a transporter that assists the amino acid tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier to be converted into serotonin which may provide a benefit for ailments such as Tourette’s Syndrome and depression.

Chromium Nicotinate Glycinate Chelate is a superior form of the mineral chromium.


Molybdenum (as Molybdenum Amino Acid Chelate)

Classified as a metallic element, Molybdenum is essential in trace amounts for plant, animal, and human health. This element participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats by serving as an essential cofactor for specific enzymes. 


Potassium (as Potassium Amino Acid Chelate)

Potassium serves primarily as an electrolyte in the body. It plays a critical role in maintaining normal heart, skeletal, and smooth muscle tissue function.

Potassium deficiency can cause several symptoms including: poor appetite, tetany, confusion, comma, vomiting, fatigue, heart arrhythmias, paralysis, and parethesia. Sudden death during episodes of prolonged fasting, anorexia, and starvation are frequently associated with heart failure secondary to potassium deficiency.

Increasing potassium intake after menopause has been shown to reduce risk of general stroke and ischemic stroke by 12% and 16%, respectively.



DL-Phenylalanine is a combination of D-Phenylalanine and L-Phenylalanine, two forms of Phenylalanine with different effects. DL-Phenylalanine is used frequently to treat mild depression and other mood disorders as well as pain[32].

The “D” form of Phenylalanine has been shown to reduce physical discomfort and pain, as where the “L” form is used to enhance mood and alleviate feelings of depression[33].[34]


Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC)

Alpha-GPC is a choline containing phospholipid that is used for its cognitive enhancing properties. In Europe, alpha GPC is a prescription medication used to treat Alzheimer’s. It is also used to treat stroke, improve thinking skills and memory.


Inositol Hexanicotinate
May help widen blood vessels and therefore improve blood flow in conditions causing compromised circulation. Inositol Hexanicotinate is also added to niacin supplements to minimize flushing effects.  It has been shown to treat depression and panic attacks.


Citrus Bioflavonoids

Bioflavonoids are powerful phytonutrients that have been shown to enhance and prolong the actions of Vitamin C. These compounds also contribute significant antioxidant benefits. 

Through the antioxidant mechanisms of citrus bioflavonoids, neutralized free radicals may reduce systemic inflammation and reduce risk of chronic illnesses such as heart disease and cancer. 



Glutamine is considered a conditionally essential amino acid which means its levels are increased when it is required by the body.

This amino acid saturates the central nervous system and is involved in many metabolic pathways. The primary role of glutamine in the brain is to act as a precursor of amino acid based neurotransmitters and helps with focus, concentration and memory[35].


Grape Seed Extract

Some studies have shown that grape seed extract may reduce swelling, ease symptoms associated with venous insufficiency and reduce systolic blood pressure. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health is supporting preliminary studies investigating the effects of grape seed extract for Alzheimer’s disease, and for preventing lung, prostate, and colon cancer.


L-Methionine is classified as an essential amino acid meaning that in cannot be produced by the body. It plays an integral role in protein synthesis, metabolism, and angiogenesis.

Methionine also functions as a powerful antioxidant which can deactivate harmful free radicals. It also supports immune system function by increasing levels of other beneficial amino acids, namely cysteine which is then converted into glutathione, the primary detoxification peptide in the liver. It is because of these mechanisms that researchers are investigating the use of L-Methionine to treat liver damage, Parkinson’s, and psychiatric illnesses.


Gingko Leaf Powder

Gingko has preliminary research to support its use for vision problems in diabetics, leg pain, vertigo, schizophrenia, dementia, anxiety, and to improve speed of thinking, attention span, and memory. Gingko is thought to provide these benefits by improving circulation by dilating blood vessels and reducing platelet aggregation.


Coenzyme Q10

Also known as CoQ10, this compound is a powerful antioxidant used in nearly every cell in the body. Studies have shown that CoQ10 may reduce blood pressure, improve symptoms of congestive heart failure, enhance recovery of numerous heart surgeries, and improve cellular energy and improve memory.


Boron (as Boron Amino Acid Chelate)

Boron is a trace mineral with a host of important roles in the human body. It is required by plants, animals, and humans. It is crucial for supporting bone growth and maintenance, reducing inflammation, supporting wound healing, increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes, protecting against oxidative stress, enhancing the brains electrical activity, short-term memory, cognitive performance.[36]

Vanadium (as Vanadium Amino Acid Chelate)

Vanadium is an essential trace mineral with multiple functions in the human body. A vanadium complex demonstrated promising anti-diabetic effects in clinical tests. Furthermore, studies in animals have revealed promising results with vanadium based compounds in the treatment of neuronal and cardiac disorders, as well as cancerous tumors and miscellaneous infections.  



Lycopene is a naturally occurring pigment that gives red fruits and vegetables their color. It is a potent antioxidant capable of neutralizing damaging free radicals that cause damage to cells.


Nickel (as Nickel Amino Acid Chelate)

Nickel is thought to be most concentrated in nucleic acids, primarily RNA which contain genetic information. It is also thought to be involved in protein structure and in the breakdown and utilization of blood sugar.


[1] Effects of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on Anxiety in Students: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

[2] Effect of vitamin E and memantine on functional decline in Alzheimer disease: the TEAM-AD VA cooperative randomized trial.

[3] Vitamin E supplementation and endurance exercise: are there benefits?

[4] Winston AP, et al, Int J Eat Disord 2000 Dec;28(4):451-4

[5] Lonsdale D., Shamburger R. Red cell transketolase as an indicator of nutritional deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 33(2):205-11, 1980.

[6] Peterman RA., et al., Current status of vitamin therapy in nervous and mental disease. J clin Nutr 2(1):11-21,1954

[7] Gelenberg A.J. Psychiatric Disorders, in DM Paige, Ed. Clinical Nutrition, Second Edition. St. Louis, C.V. Mosby, 1988

[8] Hoffer A. Vitamin B3 dependent child. Schiophrenia 3:107-13, 1971

[9] Maclaren D.S., Clincal manifestations of nutritional disorders, in M.E. Shils, VR Young, Eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Seventh Edition. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1988.

[10] Barthelemy C., et al., Behavioral and biological effects of oral magnesium, vitamin B6 and combined magnesium-B6 administration in autistic children. Mag Bull 3:150-3, 1981

[11] Reid S.D., West Indian Med J 2000 Dec;49(4):347-8

[12] Biancheri R, et al, Neuropediatrics 2001 Feb;32(1):14-22

[13] Reid S.D., West Indian Med J 2000 Dec;49(4):347-8

[14] Sydenstriker VP., Et al., Observations on the egg white injury in man. JAMA 118:1199-1200, 1940

[15] Tahiliani A.G., Beinlich C.J.: Pantothenic acid in health and disease. Vitam Horm 1991;46:165-228

[16] The fetal origins of memory: the role of dietary choline in optimal brain development, SH Zeisel, J Pediatr. 2006 Nov;149(5 Suppl):S131-6

[17] Choline: needed for normal development of memory, SH Zeisel, J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):528S-531S

[18] Choline and choline-related compounds are associated with cognitive performance and cerebrovascular pathology in older adults, A Roe et al., April 2014, The FASEB Journal,vol. 28 no. 1, Supplement 135.5, available from

[19] The Role of Acetylcholine in Learning and Memory, M.E. Hasselmo, Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006 Dec; 16(6): 710–715, Published online 2006 Sep 29. doi:10.1016, available from

[20] The effect of central stimulant drugs on acetylcholine release from rat cerebral cortex, B.A. Hemsworth, M.J. Neal, Br J Pharmacol. 1968 Nov; 34(3): 543–55, available from


[21] Kozielec T. et al., Deficiency of certain trace elements in children with hyperactivity. J Psychiatr Pol 28(3):345-53, 1994

[22] Coleman M., Clinical Presentation of Patients with Autism and Hypocalciuria. Developmental Brain Dysfunction 7:63-70, 1994

[23] Treatment of Hypothyroidism due to Iodine Deficiency Using Daily Powdered Kelp in Patients Receiving Long-term Total Enteral Nutrition.

[24] Durlach J, Clinical aspects of chronic magnesium deficiency, in MS Seeling, Ed Magnesium in Health and Disease. New York, Spectrum Publications, 1980

[25] Rimland B., Controversies in the treatment of autistic disorders: Vitamin And drug therapy. J Child Neurol 3 Suppl:S68-72, 1988

[26] Kozielec T. et al., Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Magnes Res 10(2):143-8, 1997

[27] Prasad AS. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. Nutr Rev 41(7):197,1983

[28] Rayman M.P., “The importance of selenium to human health”. Lancet 2000 Jul 15;356(9225):233- 41

[29] Hawkes WC; Hornbostel L Effects of dietary selenium on mood in healthy men living in a metabolic research unit. Biol Psychiatry, 1996 Jan, 39:2, 121-8

[30] Benton D, Cook R. The impact of selenium supplementation on mood. Bio Psychiatry 29(11):1092- 8, 1991

[31] Keller JN et al. Mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase prevents neural apoptosis and reduces ischemic brain injury: suppression of peroxynitrite production, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. J Neurosci, 1998 Jan, 18:2, 687-97

[32] Analgesic effectiveness of D-phenylalanine in chronic pain patients, NE Walsh et al., Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986 Jul;67(7):436-9

[33] Effects on mood of acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion in healthy women, M Leyton et al., Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Jan;22(1):52-63

[34] L-Phenylalanine, PubChem, Open Chemistry Database, retrieved on 8 December, 2016

[35] Roles of glutamine in neurotransmission.

[36] Penland JG Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance. Environ Health Perspect, 1994 Nov, 102 Suppl 7:, 65-72